1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Mar;89(3):719-27. Epub 2009 Jan 28. Related Articles, Links
Dietary reference intakes for vitamin D: justification for a review of the 1997 values
Yetley EA, Brulé D, Cheney MC, Davis CD, Esslinger KA, Fischer PW, Friedl KE, Greene-Finestone LS, Guenther PM, Klurfeld DM, L'Abbe MR, McMurry KY, Starke-Reed PE, Trumbo PR
Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 3B01, Bethesda, MD 20892-7517, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Recent Institute of Medicine (IOM) reviews of the process for deriving Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) suggest that determining the need for a new nutrient review should be evaluated against criteria set a priori. After selecting the criterion of significant new and relevant research, a working group of US and Canadian government scientists used results from a systematic review and 2 conferences on vitamin D and health to evaluate whether significant new and relevant scientific evidence had become available since the 1997 IOM publication of the DRIs for vitamin D. This working group concluded that there appears to be new research meeting the criteria for 4 key DRI questions. The new research is of larger quantity and quality for the elderly than for other groups, but overall 1) adds to the bone-related and status evidence available to the 1997 DRI Committee for several of the life-stage groups, 2) identifies new outcomes with respect to risk of falls and performance measures in the elderly and potential adverse effects, and 3) provides additional information on dose-response relations between intakes and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and several health outcomes (ie, bone-related outcomes for all ages and risk of falls and performance measures in older adults). Members of the working group concluded that significant new and relevant research was available for reviewing the existing DRIs for vitamin D while leaving the decision of whether the new research will result in changes to the current DRIs to a future IOM-convened DRI committee.
2. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2009 Feb;49(2):136-44. Related Articles, Links
What is next for the Dietary Reference Intakes for bone metabolism related nutrients beyond calcium: phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride?
Bergman C, Gray-Scott D, Chen JJ, Meacham S
Department of Food and Beverage Management, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA.
The science supporting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride was examined in this review. Along with the previous article on calcium in this series both of these reviews represent all the DRI for nutrients considered essential for bone metabolism and health, as reported in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board (FNB), 1997). The Recomended Dietary Allowances (RDA) or adequate intake (AI), and the tolerable upper intake level (UL) were recommended for each of these essential nutrients. For adults and in the case of fluoride, for infants as well, UL were calculated since all of these nutrients have the potential for mild to detrimental side effects. Dietary intake data and controversies regarding the role these nutrients may play in other chronic diseases have also been discussed. Advances and controversies reported since the publication of the DRI for these nutrients were also addressed in this review. A recent Dietary Reference Intake Research Synthesis Workshop report identified an extensive range of suggested future research directions needed to improve our understanding of these bone-related nutrients and their contributions to human health.
3. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2008 May;48(5):378-84. Related Articles, Links
Review of the dietary reference intake for calcium: where do we go from here?
Meacham S, Grayscott D, Chen JJ, Bergman C
Department of Food and Beverage Management, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4004, USA. email@example.com
In this article the science relied on to establish the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) specifically for calcium was examined. The latest dietary recommendations for the essential nutrients significant with respect to their roles in bone metabolism and health were reported in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997) (NIM, 1997). For calcium an adequate intake was recommended because insufficient data were available at the time to determine specific Recommended Dietary Allowances. Dietary intake data and the controversies regarding the role calcium may play in other chronic diseases have also been discussed. Advances and continued dilemmas regarding these topics reported since the publication of the DRI were also addressed in this review. A recent Dietary Reference Intake Research Synthesis Workshop report identified an extensive range of suggested future research directions needed to improve our understanding of calcium and bone and health.
4. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Apr;63(4):505-12. Epub 2008 Jan 30. Related Articles, Links
Estimated net endogenous acid production and intake of bone health-related nutrients in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents
Chan RS, Woo J, Chan DC, Cheung CS, Lo DH
Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To examine the daily intake of bone health-related nutrients and to explore the association between diet composition and estimated net endogenous acid production (estimated NEAP) in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. SUBJECT/METHODS: In total, 171 boys and 180 girls aged 10-12 years of Chinese origin from nine primary schools from the Hong Kong Adolescent Bone Health Cohort Study. The study design used food frequency questionnaire. Mean daily intakes of foods and selected nutrients were estimated. Mean percentage of nutrient intake contributed by different food groups was presented. Frassetto's method was used to calculate the estimated NEAP from the diet's protein to potassium ratio. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the energy-adjusted intakes of most nutrients between boys and girls, except for intakes of vitamins C and D. Mean protein, sodium and potassium intakes were higher than the Chinese dietary reference intake (DRI), whereas mean intakes of magnesium, calcium and vitamin D were lower than the DRI. Boys had significantly higher estimated NEAP than girls (P=0.0051). Estimated NEAP was significantly positively correlated with meat intake and negatively associated with the consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, beverages and dairy products. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the importance of considering whole diet quality when interpreting the effects of single nutrient or diet's net acid load on bone. The effect on high protein intake and low fruit and vegetable intake on the long-term bone health of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents warrants attention.
5. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Mar;103(3-5):626-30. Epub 2007 Jan 10.Related Articles, Links
Vitamin D intakes in North America and Asia-Pacific countries are not sufficient to prevent vitamin D insufficiency
Whiting SJ, Green TJ, Calvo MS
College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5C9. email@example.com
Worldwide, vitamin D status is suboptimal relative to circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) needed to prevent a variety of chronic conditions, however, it has long been assumed that dietary intake is sufficient to meet needs when sun exposure is limited. In the USA, mean vitamin D intake from foods is close to 5 microg, the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendation for persons up to 50 years; however, the amount of vitamin D needed to maintain a sufficient 25OHD level during winter is >12.5 microg, and that needed for darkly pigmented, veiled, or sun protected persons is >50 microg. In the USA, most vitamin D intake from foods is provided by fortification. Canada and New Zealand have fewer fortified choices, and intakes are correspondingly lower. Supplement use can increase mean intake to >12.5 microg but does not always reach those who need it most. Serum 25OHD levels in New Zealand reveal much more insufficiency than expected, especially for Pacific people and Mäori; low serum 25OHD concentrations are seen throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Fortification and supplementation may be effective to achieve intakes of 12.5 microg vitamin D in some of the population, but for many achieving the amount needed in the absence of skin synthesis requires intakes above the current upper level for vitamin D of 50 microg.
6. Public Health Nutr. 2007 Jan;10(1):88-96. Related Articles, Links
Adaptation and evaluation of the National Cancer Institute's Diet History Questionnaire and nutrient database for Canadian populations
Csizmadi I, Kahle L, Ullman R, Dawe U, Zimmerman TP, Friedenreich CM, Bryant H, Subar AF
Division of Population Health and Information, Alberta Cancer Board, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N 4N2. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite assumed similarities in Canadian and US dietary habits, some differences in food availability and nutrient fortification exist. Food-frequency questionnaires designed for the USA may therefore not provide the most accurate estimates of dietary intake in Canadian populations. Hence, we undertook to evaluate and modify the National Cancer Institute's Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and nutrient database. METHODS: Of the foods queried on the DHQ, those most likely to differ in nutrient composition were identified. Where possible these foods were matched to comparable foods in the Canadian Nutrient File. Nutrient values were examined and modified to reflect the Canadian content of minerals (calcium, iron, zinc) and vitamins (A, C, D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, folate and B12). DHQs completed by 13 181 Alberta Cohort Study participants aged 35-69 years were analysed to estimate nutrient intakes using the original US and modified versions of the DHQ databases. Misclassification of intake for meeting the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) was determined following analysis with the US nutrient database. RESULTS: Twenty-five per cent of 2411 foods deemed most likely to differ in nutrient profile were subsequently modified for folate, 11% for vitamin D, 10% for calcium and riboflavin, and between 7 and 10% for the remaining nutrients of interest. Misclassification with respect to meeting the DRI varied but was highest for folate (7%) and vitamin A (7%) among men, and for vitamin D (7%) among women over 50 years of age. CONCLUSIOn: Errors in nutrient intake estimates owing to differences in food fortification between the USA and Canada can be reduced in Canadian populations by using nutrient databases that reflect Canadian fortification practices.
7. J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2006 Dec;31(4):204-9. Related Articles, Links
Dietary status and impact of risperidone on nutritional balance in children with autism: a pilot study
Lindsay RL, Eugene Arnold L, Aman MG, Vitiello B, Posey DJ, McDougle CJ, Scahill L, Pachler M,
McCracken JT, Tierney E, Bozzolo D
Children's Health Center of St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Arizona 85013, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Risperidone may be effective in improving tantrums, aggression, or self-injurious behaviour in children with autism, but often leads to weight gain. METHOD: Using a quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we prospectively examined the nutritional intake of 20 children with autism participating in a randomised placebo-controlled trial of risperidone for disruptive behaviours. RESULTS: At baseline, the mean intakes for macronutrients, vitamins and minerals exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). However there was substantial inter-participant variability, with individual deficiencies (<80% of DRI) in the intake of calcium (9 of 20 participants), pantothenic acid (6 of 20), vitamin D (5 of 20) and vitamin K (8 of 20). For the participants for whom FFQs were available, there was an increase in weight and an increase in vitamin K intake after 2 months of risperidone treatment (n = 9) compared to placebo (n = 8). An additional 4 months of risperidone treatment (n = 8) did not result in significant changes in reported nutritional balance. CONCLUSION: These pilot data suggest that treatment with risperidone did not significantly affect the nutritional balance of this small group of children.
8. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2006 Mar;40(2):75-8. Related Articles, Links
Relationship between the absorption of dietary calcium and the Fok I polymorphism of VDR gene in young women
[Article in Chinese]
Huang ZW, Dong J, Piao JH, Li WD, Tian Y, Xu J, Yang XG
Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the absorption of dietary calcium and VDR (Vitamin D(3) receptor, VDR) gene RFLPs in Chinese young women with representative diets. METHODS: Forty subjects were selected from three hundred young female students aged 18 - 23 years old. After identifying the VDR gene Fok I RFLPs, the subjects were given the representative diets during the 3-day adaptation period and the 12-day metabolism period. The copy food and drinking for measurement of nutrients and also the complete feces each day were collected. The dietary calcium absorption of each subject was examined and calculated. RESULTS: As expected, the intake of dietary calcium in subjects is close to the results set by the of National Nutrition Investigation in 1992 (from young women at 17 year old) or the daily reference intake (DRI) for adult woman; the difference of the absorption of dietary calcium among VDR gene RFLPs in young women was observed: ff < Ff < FF, (28.7 +/- 10.5)%, (30.4 +/- 15.9)% and (40.6 +/- 11.0)% respectively; only significant difference between FF genotype and Ff genotype, P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Our results were consistent with those gained from the previous studies on children about the relationship between the absorption of dietary calcium and VDR (Vitamin D(3) receptor, VDR) gene RFLPs, and now it might occur in young women. Further studies need to be taken by using stable isotope and increasing subjects in young women.
（摘自Vitamin D Today）